Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)



    This research is prepared by Tsigab Gebregziabher Mekelle University;2012 Mobile Phone:-0914121445





    First and for most of all I would like to thank God for helping me through out the difficult time I had faced.Secondly I would like to express my deepest gratitude to DKT who gives me this opportunity.


    1 - Summery

    2 - Introduction

       2.1 - Background

      2.2 - Acquired immune deficincey syndrome( AIDS)

      2.3 - Gonerrhea

      2.4 - Syphilis

      2.5 - Genital herps

      2.6 – Chancroid

    3 - Objective

       3.1-  General objective

       3.2- Specific objective

    4 - Conclusion

    5 - References




                       1-   SUMMERY


    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections generally acquired by sexual contact. The organisms that cause sexually transmitted diseases may pass from person to person in blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids.

    Some of these infections can also be transmitted nonsexually, such as from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

    It's possible to contract sexually transmitted diseases from people who seem perfectly healthy — people who, in fact, aren't even aware of being infected. Many of the infections transmitted through sex cause no symptoms, which is one of the reasons experts prefer the term "sexually transmitted infections" to "sexually transmitted diseases." The symptoms of several sexually transmitted infections are also easy to mistake for those of other conditions, so the correct diagnosis may be delayed.


    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have a wide range of signs and symptoms. That's why they may go unnoticed until complications occur or a partner is diagnosed. Signs and symptoms that might indicate an STI include:

    • Sores or bumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area

    • Painful or burning urination

    • Discharge from the penis

    • Vaginal discharge

    • Unusual vaginal bleeding

    • Sore, swollen lymph nodes, particularly in the groin but sometimes more widespread

    Signs and symptoms may appear a few days to three months after exposure, depending on the organism. They may resolve in a few weeks, even without treatment, but progression with later complications — or recurrence — sometimes occurs.




    Sexually transmitted infections can be caused by:

    • Bacteria (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia)

    • Parasites (trichomoniasis)

    • Viruses (human papillomavirus, genital herpes, HIV)

    Sexual activity plays a role in spreading many other infectious agents, although it's possible to be infected without sexual contact. Examples include the hepatitis A and B viruses, shigella, cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia.



    There are several ways to avoid or reduce your risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    • Abstain. The most effective way to avoid STIs is to abstain from sex.

    • Stay with one uninfected partner. Another reliable way of avoiding STIs is to stay in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who isn't infected.

    • Get vaccinated. Getting vaccinated early, before sexual exposure, is also effective in preventing certain types of STIs. Vaccines are available to prevent two viral STIs that can cause cancer — human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the HPV vaccine for girls and boys ages 11 and 12. If not fully vaccinated at ages 11 and 12, the CDC recommends that girls and women through age 26 and boys and men through age 21 receive the vaccine. However, men may receive the HPV vaccine through age 26 if desired. The hepatitis B vaccine is usually given to newborns.

    • Wait and verify. Avoid vaginal and anal intercourse with new partners until you have both been tested for STIs. Oral sex is less risky, but use a latex condom or dental dam to prevent direct contact between the oral and genital mucosa.

    • Use condoms consistently and correctly. Use a new latex condom for each sex act, whether oral, vaginal or anal. Never use an oil-based lubricant, such as petroleum jelly, with a latex condom. Keep in mind that nonbarrier forms of contraception, such as oral contraceptives or intrauterine devices, don't protect against STIs.

    • Don't drink alcohol excessively or use drugs. If you're under the influence, you're more likely to take sexual risks.

    • Avoid anonymous, casual sex. Don't look for sex partners online or in bars or other pickup places. Not knowing your sex partner well increases your risk of possible exposure to an STI.

    • Communicate. Before any serious sexual contact, communicate with your partner about practicing safer sex. Reach an explicit agreement about what activities will and won't be OK.

    • Teach your child. Becoming sexually active at a young age tends to increase a person's number of overall partners and, as a result, his or her risk of STIs. Biologically, young girls are more susceptible to infection.  While you can't control your teen or preteen's actions, you can help your child understand the risks of sexual activity and that it's OK to wait to have sex.

    • Consider male circumcision. There's evidence that male circumcision can help reduce a man's risk of acquiring HIV from an infected woman (heterosexual transmission) by 50 to 60 percent. Male circumcision may also help prevent transmission of genital HPV and genital herpes.




                   2 - Introduction

             2.1- Background


    STDs are those that are transmitted from one person to another person during coitus or other genital contact. They are somethimes called veneral diseases. The incidence of those diseases is distrubitly high. It is estimated that one in four Americans between the age 15 and 55 will acquire some form of STDs that is about 8 to 10 million Americans will contact STDs each year.


    Organisms causing STDs usually do not live and reproduce on dry skin surfaces, instead they require the moist environment of the membranes in the so called transitional zones of the body – those that occur at openings between the external ana internal body surfaces.





    Prompt treatment can help prevent the complications of some STIs. Since many people in the early stages of an STI experience no symptoms, screening for STIs is especially important in preventing complications.

    Possible complications include:

    • Sores or bumps anywhere on the body

    • Recurrent genital sores

    • Generalized skin rash

    • Pain during intercourse

    • Scrotal pain, redness and swelling

    • Pelvic pain

    • Groin abscess

    • Eye inflammation

    • Arthritis

    • Pelvic inflammatory disease

    • Infertility

    • Cervical cancer

    • Other cancers, including HIV-associated lymphoma and HPV-associated rectal and anal cancers

    • Opportunistic infections occurring in advanced HIV

    • Maternal-fetal transmission, which causes severe birth defects.

              Risk factors



    Anyone who is sexually active risks exposure to a sexually transmitted infection to some degree. Factors that may increase that risk include:

    • Having unprotected sex.Vaginal or anal penetration by an infected partner who is not wearing a latex condom transmits some diseases with particular efficiency. Without a condom, a man who has gonorrhea has a 70 to 80 percent chance of infecting his female partner in a single act of vaginal intercourse. Improper or inconsistent use of condoms can also increase your risk. Oral sex is less risky but may still transmit germs without a latex condom or dental dam.

    • Having multiple sex partners. The more people you have sex with, the greater your overall exposure. This is true for concurrent as well as consecutive partners. Each time you break up with one partner and move on to another, even if each relationship is monogamous, your STI risk is increased.

    • Having a history of one or more STIs. Being infected with one STI makes it much easier for another STI to take hold. If you're infected with herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea or chlamydia and you have unprotected sex with an HIV-positive partner, you're more likely to contract HIV. Also, it's possible to be reinfected by the same infected partner if he or she isn't treated along with you.

    • Abusing alcohol or using recreational drugs. Substance abuse can inhibit your judgment, making you more willing to participate in risky behaviors.

    • Injecting drugs. Needle sharing spreads many serious infections, including HIV and hepatitis B. If you acquire HIV by injecting drugs, you can transmit it sexually.

    • Being an adolescent female. In adolescent girls, the immature cervix is made up of constantly changing cells. These unstable cells make the adolescent female cervix more vulnerable to certain sexually transmitted organisms.

    According to a surveillance report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, sexually transmitted infections are more common among certain groups, such as young people, men who have sex with men and minority communities. The theory is that potential sex partners often belong to social networks made up of people of similar age, location and background. Within these overlapping networks, couples regularly form, split up and find new partners. If one STI is making its way through such a network, there's a good chance that others are, too.


        Transmission from mother to infant


    Certain STIs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis can be passed from an infected mother to her child during pregnancy or delivery. STIs in infants can cause serious problems and may be fatal. All pregnant women should be screened for these infections and treated, if necessary.



           Treatments and drugs



    STIs caused by bacteria are generally easy to treat. Viral infections can be managed but not always cured. If you're pregnant and have an STI, prompt treatment can prevent or reduce the risk of infection of your baby. Treatment usually consists of one of the following, depending on the infection.

    • Antibiotics. Antibiotics, often in a single dose, can cure many sexually transmitted bacterial and parasitic infections, including gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Typically, you'll be treated for gonorrhea and chlamydia at the same time because the two infections often appear together.

      Once you start antibiotic treatment, it's crucial to follow through. If you don't think you'll be able to take medication as prescribed, tell your doctor. A shorter, simpler treatment regimen may be available. In addition, it's important to abstain from sex until you've completed treatment and any sores have healed.

    • Antiviral drugs. You'll have fewer herpes recurrences if you take daily suppressive therapy with a prescription antiviral drug, but you can still give your partner herpes at any time.

      Antiviral drugs can keep HIV infection in check for many years, although the virus persists and can still be transmitted. The sooner you start treatment, the more effective it is. If you take anti-HIV medication for 28 days, starting as soon as you know you've been exposed, you may avoid becoming HIV-positive.




    2.2 - Acquired immuno deficincey syndrome (AIDS)




    AIDS stands for "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." AIDS is an advanced stage of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV). HIV usually is spread from person to person through contact with infected sexual secretions or infected blood.The AIDS epidemic is a global catastrophe, responsible for over 20 million deaths worldwide, tens of millions of children left orphaned, and 40 million people living with HIV. Similarly, five hundred million people a year suffer from reproductive health morbidity or lack of access to modern contraceptives, and there are over half a million pregnancy related deaths each year



    Studies have shown that the human immunodeficiency virus first arose in Africa. It spread from primates to people early in the twentieth century, possibly when humans came into contact with infected blood during a chimpanzee hunt. By testing stored blood samples, scientists have found evidence of human infection as long ago as 1959.

    Once introduced into humans, HIV was spread through sexual intercourse from person to person. As infected people moved around, the virus spread from Africa to other areas of the world. In 1981, U.S. physicians noticed that a large number of young men were dying of unusual infections and cancers. Initially, U.S. victims were predominately homosexual men, probably because the virus inadvertently entered this population first in this country and because the virus is transmitted easily during anal intercourse. However, it is important to note that the virus also is efficiently transmitted through heterosexual activity and contact with infected blood or secretions. In Africa, which remains the center of the AIDS pandemic, most cases are heterosexually transmitted.

    AIDS is an advanced stage of HIV infection. Because the CD4 cells in the immune system have been largely destroyed, people with AIDS often develop symptoms and signs of unusual infections or cancers. When a person with HIV infection gets one of these infections or cancers, it is referred to as an "AIDS-defining condition. Significant, unexplained weight loss also is an AIDS-defining condition. Because common conditions like cancer or other viral conditions like infectious mononucleosis also can cause weight loss and fatigue, it is sometimes easy for a physician to overlook the possibility of HIV/AIDS. It is possible for people without AIDS to get some of these conditions, especially the more common infections like tuberculosis.

    People with AIDS may develop symptoms of pneumonia due to Pneumocystis, which is rarely seen in people with normal immune systems. They also are more likely to get pneumonia due to common bacteria. Globally, tuberculosis is one of the most common infections associated with AIDS. In addition, people with AIDS may develop seizures, weakness, or mental changes due to toxoplasmosis, a parasite that infects the brain.


                                              2.3 Gonerrhea


    A bacterial infection that is transmitted by sexual contact. Gonorrhea is one of the oldest known sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and it is caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. Men with gonorrhea may have a yellowish discharge from the penis accompanied by itching and burning. More than half of women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. If symptoms occur, they may include burning or frequent urination, yellowish vaginal discharge, redness and swelling of the genitals, and a burning or itching of the vaginal area. If untreated, gonorrhea can lead to severe pelvic infections and even sterility. Complications in later life can include inflammation of the heart valves, arthiritis, and eye infections. Gonorrhea can also cause eye infections in babies born of infected mothers. Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics.



                                                     2.4- Syphilis


    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a microscopic organism called a spirochete. This worm-like, spiral-shaped organism infects people by burrowing into the moist mucous membranes of the mouth or genitals. From there, the spirochete produces a non-painful ulcer known as a chancre. There are three stages of syphilis:

    • The first (primary) stage: This involves the formation of the chancre. At this stage, syphilis is highly contagious. The primary stage can last one to five weeks. The disease can be transmitted from any contact with one of the ulcers, which are teeming with spirochetes. If the ulcer is outside of the vagina or on the scrotum, the use of condoms may not help in preventing transmission. Likewise, if the ulcer is in the mouth, merely kissing the infected individual can spread syphilis. Even without treatment, the early infection resolves on its own in most women.

    • The second (secondary) stage: However, 25 percent of cases will proceed to the secondary stage of syphilis, which lasts four to six weeks. This phase can include hair loss; sorethroat; white patches in the nose, mouth, and vagina; fever; headaches; and a skin  rassh.There can be lesions on the genitals that look like genital ,warts but are caused by spirochetes rather than the wart virus. These wart-like lesions, as well as the skin rash, are highly contagious. The rash can occur on the palms of the hands, and the infection can be transmitted by casual contact.

    • The third (tertiary) stage: This final stage of the disease involves the brain and heart, and is usually no longer contagious. At this point, however, the infection can cause extensive damage to the internal organs and the brain, and can lead to death.



                                                 2.5 - Genital herps



    Genital herpes is an infection by human herpes virus that is transmitted through intimate contact with the moist mucous linings of the genitals. This contact can involve the mouth, the vagina, or the genital skin. Following infection, the virus travels to nerve roots near the spinal cord and settles there permanently. When an infected person has a herpes outbreak, the virus travels down the nerve fibers to the site of the original infection; when it reaches the skin, redness and blisters occur. Commonly called herpes.


                          2.6 - Chancriod 


    Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection(STI) caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. Periodic outbreaks of chancroid have occurred in the US, usually in minority populations in the inner cities. This disease is common in sub-Saharan Africa among men who have frequent contact with prostitutes.

    The infection begins with the appearance of painful open sores on the genitals, sometimes accompanied by swollen, tender lymph nodes in the groin. These symptoms occur within a week after exposure. Symptoms in women are often less noticeable and may be limited to painful urination or defecation, painful intercourse, rectal bleeding, or vaginal discharge.

    Chancroid can be treated effectively with several antibiotics. Chancroid is one of the genital ulcer diseases associated with an increased risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS. also known as soft chancre, soft sore, and soft ulcer.




    3 – Objective


    3.1- General objectives


    - to know the major types of sexually transmitted diseases.


    3.2-Specific objectives


    - To know the causes of sexually transmitted diseases.

    - To know the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

    - To know tretments of sexually transmitted diseases.

    4 – conclusion


    The world continues to live with the ironic realization that the most intimate form of human relations, that of sexual interactions, carries the threat of serious disease. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), once known as venereal diseases, have menaced humankind since the dawn of recorded history.

    Learning about STDs and how to protect your self from them is an important for your health and saftey. Knowledge is a power and educating your self to protect your health is a life goal you should try to attain.



                    5 – References














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